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Title: Публічна дипломатія малих держав
Small state diplomacy
Authors: Трофименко, Микола Валерійович
Keywords: мала держава
публічна дипломатія
почесне консульство
small state
public diplomacy
honorary consulate
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: У роботі характеризуються основні ознаки малих держав та їх трансформація під впливом глобалізації та розвитку високих технологій. Робиться акцент на тому, що для підтримання своїх зовнішньополітичних цілей малі держави досить активно використовують інститут почесних (нештатних консулів). На прикладі Ліхтенштейну розглядається ефективність діяльності почесних консулів та їх роль у запровадженні стратегій публічної дипломатії та брендингу. Зауважується, що почесні консули Ліхтенштейну є регіонально-орієнтованими суб-національними послами, чия діяльність знаходиться за межами традиційних функцій консульств, таких як: видача віз та обслуговування громадян.
Globalization imposes its critical influence on various activities of state by transforming traditional notions of power of the country, its economic and military potential, political influence etc. Today, a country which is considered to be small in terms of geography, population, and natural resources may gain a big share of influence and turn into the financial and banking services center, a high tech production center etc. Small states can be defined in a number of ways, however there is always a place for ambiguousness and controversy among scholars in regard to the classification. Some of them define small states as actors with limited abilities and influence. Others use the following criteria in order to define state: population, territory, GNP, GDP and elements of military and economic potential of state. The problem is where to draw the line between the small and medium size states as except for the notions of a "small state" and a "medium-sized state" there also exists a notion of a "micro-state". The papers on micro-states study seem to merely stick around the issues of sovereignty and action capacity, i.e. how the dependence on other states in developing and conducting policy influence this policy. Regarding it, some authors think that the need among the small states to maintain its active sovereignty is in some way questioned by other states and small states cannot maintain what larger states call minimum required "presence" in the international society of states (membership in international organizations, embassies in key capitals) due to the lack of resources. For example, in 1920 Lichtenstein’s application for the membership in the League of Nations was denied due to the lack of army and the attributes of sovereignty. Today these traditional parameters, though remain important, still are not ultimate or obligatory in determining the status of any state. As one practitioner noted: "I firmly believe that it is not the land size or the number of citizens of a country that determines its value and interaction with world society, but its contribution to the public diplomacy and its achievements". The United Nations (UN) has also attempted to determine small and micro-states. The research conducted by the United Nations Institute for Training and Research in 1971 quoted the UN Secretary-General sayings from 1966 when he determined small states as "entities which are exceptionally small in area, population, human, and economic resources". According to the UN definition, small state or micro-state is a state with the population of less than 100,000 citizens. Lichtenstein is one of them. Finally, the number of consuls, surely honorary ones, is seen as an innovative decision in matters of representation. Honorary consuls’ appointment is the result of the limitations, which small states face in international relations and foreign policy. This approach is one the most efficient ones. It can be used by micro-states to expand its international activities. The cleavage between the functions of diplomatic and consular representations in some way lies in different practices. Sometimes it’s difficult to distinguish basically commercial interests of states from political or even strategic issues. The article draws the following conclusion. First, the influence of globalization has changed the notion of traditional parameters of state, their role within the region and in the world as a whole. Second, in order to achieve its foreign policy goals small states introduce honorary consulates more actively into the diplomatic practice as they do not require governmental spendings and according to the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1963, all the spendings are the responsibility of the honorary consul. Third, small states use honorary consulates to implement the issues of public diplomacy and the strategy of branding through which they disseminate the information about themselves, attracting investors, tourists, etc. Fourth, the use of honorary consulates by small states brings up the issues of thorough selection of consulate officials and the monitoring of the effectiveness of their efforts.
Description: Трофименко М. В. Публічна дипломатія малих держав / М. В. Трофименко // Вісник Маріупольського державного університету. Серія : Історія. Політологія / за заг. ред. К. В. Балабанова. – 2016. – Вип. 16. – С. 329–336.
Appears in Collections:Трофименко Микола Валерійович

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